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      关于试析水利工程建设对生态环境的影响和;げ呗网站位置: >> 工程论文 >> 电气工程论文 >> 电气工程及自动化论文 >> 浏览文章
      试析水利工程建设对生态环境的影响和;げ呗

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      水利工程建设对生态环境的影响和;ざ圆[摘 要]社会经济发展速度日益加快,带动了电力工程及水利工程发展。当前我国逐步实现了水利工程的开发与利用,这在极大的推动了社会与经济效益的提高,并且也一定程度上符合一些人民群众的要求。但是,这也给人类的自然生态环境带来一定危害,阻碍了可持续发展战略的实施。本文从水利工程相关背景出发,分析了水利工程在建设时给生态环境带来的影响,并详细提出了相应的;げ呗。
        [关键词]水利工程 生态环境 ;げ呗
        1009-914X(2014)13-0218-01
        1.前言
        自新中国1949建国以来,水利建设获得了非常大的发展。全国已经建成各类不同规模的水库数万座,并累积修建的堤防长度约数十万公里,从而初步形成包含排涝、防洪、供水、灌溉、发电等完整的水利工程系统。这些系统,一方面,这些工程在洪旱灾害方面的抵御效果明显,为社会经济的安全及工农业的生产发展、水土资源的;さ确矫娣⒒幼殴丶饔。而同时,水利工程在建设过程中,也导致了流域、区域内的生态、资源、环境结构等发生变化,对当地生态环境造成不利影响。因而,正确认识并;にこ潭缘钡厣肪吃斐傻挠跋,是当前水利工程建设过程中的重要课题。
        2.水利工程建设对于生态环境的影响分析
        2.1 水利工程建设对于当地局部气温影响分析
        水利工程在建设时,例如建设水库,建成以后,库区和空间间的接触由之前陆面的变成水面,从而导致空气间能量的交换方式及强度都发生了很大的变化,最终影响当地的气温环境。大一点的水库,水深一般都在7米以上,在这类水库的影响下,冬季的平均气温将高于陆地1.8℃至2.9℃左右;当处于夏季时,则会产生降温作用,尤其是处于干旱的地区,降温效果表现的更明显,降温幅度将达到1.0℃至4.0℃左右;当处在高原地区时,则将产生增温效应,增温的数值比较小,一般为0.2℃至0.8℃左右。当处于春秋两季时,大型水库可以将提高0.8℃至1.9℃年平均气温,对于极端低气温的区域,则可以提高3.0℃至5.0℃左右,气温的日较差将平均下降约2℃,而年较差则将减小约1.5℃至2.0℃,而干旱地区则将减少约5℃。总而言之,水利工程大水库的建设对于局部气温的影响还是很明显的{1]。
        2.2 水利工程对于局部地区降雨影响分析
        水利工程对于降水影响的因素如下:首先,水面的蒸发作用比较强,促使空气的湿度增加,从而出现增加降水的正效应。其次,当气流进入到水域以后,风速的增加及流线的辐散,会出现下沉运动,会出现减少降水的负效应。最后,在暖季时,水上的温度要低于陆上的温度,而大气层的结构比陆上要更稳定,影响对流发展,从而出现降水减少负效应。
        在湿润及比较湿润的地区,由于水汽非常充足,因而降水的主要决定条件就是对流发展和空气的上升运动强弱。因而,在暖季时,第二及第三中情形中的负效应将发挥主要作用,促使水域和周围地区降水明显减少。然而在冷季区域中,因为水域促使降水增加正效应,超过了促使其降水减少负效应,从而湿润及比较湿润的地区水域和周围地区降水将增加。我国的季风区域,由于降水大多集中于暖季,因此,水域通常都会减少附近地区的年降水量。而干旱区域,降水主要决定因素在于水汽来源和空气的湿度,由于水域和周围空气的湿度在全年中各月都要大于干燥陆地大,尤其是相对湿度要大很多,相比较于陆地,水域具有更有利降水条件,因而不管是处于冷季还是暖季来说,水域将具备更多增加降水增加的正效应。
        2.3 水利工程对于河流的生态环境影响分析
        从不同角度来看,水利工程一般是建于天然河道之上,对于这类人为的介入自然行为,最直接的影响就是导致天然河流在长期的演变过程中形成的生态环境发生转变,并影响河流环境中生物的多样性。当于天然河流进行水利工程施工时,一般都会在天然河流处采取截流措施,以方便施工工作,这将导致局部河段水深度、淤泥量、含沙量等都发生变化,最终对河流的上下游段水文及泥沙等造成不良影响[2]。
        此外,水利工程对于河流水温、地质、水质等都会造成不良影响。如水库蓄水后,将提升地下水的水位,河流沿岸农田容易被淹没和盐碱化。同时,水库由于水面宽和水体大,再加上太阳辐射作用,促使水库水温结构与天然河流的水温结构差异很大,原本生活于天然河流的鱼虾等水生物存活环境变化也很大,从而影响鱼虾等水产品产量。更严重的是对于一些珍稀;ざ锏纳撤庇蚧鞲腔倜鹦缘,破坏生物的多样性。而水库在蓄水后,水库的流速将变缓,在这种情况下,泥沙等物质非常容易沉淀累积。
        3.加强水利工程建设下生态坏境的;ご胧┓治
        3.1 完善环境影响的评价制度
        环境影响的评价制度,指的是在该地区实施可能会影响到当地生态环境的水利工程建设时,在具体规划和其他活动前,事先对这项活动可能会对周边地区生态环境的影响采取预测、调查及评价措施,并且提出关于环境污染破坏及防治的策略,从而制定出相应的;し桨。
        因此,在实施水利工程的建设工作时,完善环境影响与评价制度,有助于促使水利建设、经济建设及环境建设的共同发展。水利工程的建设项目,既需要评价其经济效应,也需要评价其环境影响效应,针对开发建设的活动中可能导致的环境影响进行科学分析,并采取相应的防治;ご胧。
        通过这项评价工作,有助于为水利工程的建设项目选址合理性提供一个科学的依据,避开因布局的不合理导致给环境造成的无法磨灭的影响。
        3.2 完善水利工程建设的所有环节生态环境;すぷ
        在水利工程的建设过程中,首先要强化生态环境的;じ拍,将生态环境的;じ拍钊谌胗谒こ探ㄉ韫ぷ鞯乃谢方谥。在设计阶段,需要遵循和谐发展原则,给植物的生长及动物的栖息营造合适条件,同时还要给鱼类的产卵提供相应的条件、为鸟类及水禽等提供好避难所和栖息地;在建设阶段中,应当优先采用环保技术等措施,采用最有利于当地植物生长及动物成长环境的环保材料;在完成阶段,针对水利工程的环境影响建立相应的监测与反馈机制,对当地环境状况进行跟踪评价,一旦存在明显的不良影响现象,要及时采取;ご胧,将破坏的程度降至最低。
        3.3 完善生态补偿等机制
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