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      关于阐述当代书法教育单一化倾向及策略网站位置: >> 教育论文 >> 班主任论文 >> 小学班主任论文 >> 浏览文章
      阐述当代书法教育单一化倾向及策略

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      当代书法教育单一化倾向及对策作者简介:王风国,现在四川大学艺术学院
        【摘要】由于近几年广州高校、中小学书法教育中存在只重技法的考试,为了技法而技法,致使广州书法教育与现当代人文精神要求相悖。理由不止于此,教师教学中存在的误导倾向以及专业书法教师匮乏,导致了广大中小学生模式化的学习唐楷、模式化的学习九宫格。长此下去,令人思考。
        【关键词】广东书法教育;书法格式;师资;单一
        广东书法教育近几年的发展如火如荼,然而,高校、中小学的书法教育的书学理路、教学策略以及书学观念陈腐不堪。尤其表现在对中小学的教育上。笔者从入门书体和章法模式两个方面来解读教师在书法教学中的误导倾向。
       。ㄒ唬┦佳樘宓ヒ换阆,影响了学生对书法学习的兴趣和积极性
        纵观广东省近几年的书法基础教育,从其入门书体看来基本是以颜、柳、欧、赵四大家的代表作为切入点,当然,也包括其它省份。我们材料二、三不难看出,学生在开始学习书法时首先选择楷书,而对于中小学生而言选择楷书的学习范围也只是唐颜真卿《多宝塔》、柳公权《玄秘塔》。有不少论者认为,学习书法从唐楷入手,才能写的工整到位。人们不仅要问,楷书三大体系中的晋楷中的《乐毅论》、《黄庭经》和魏楷中的《郑文公碑》、《崔敬邕墓志》算不算平稳工整?在学习书法过程中,“取法乎上,仅得乎中;取法呼中,仅得乎下”,还是很有道理的。试比较晋楷、魏楷、唐楷三个系列。晋楷古朴简约、魏楷粗率拙厚、唐楷端庄森严。纵观颜柳书法,代表了中国书史上各种文字演化至高峰阶段特有的美化倾向,即“华饰” 现象。并且颜柳书法的华饰特征被后来宋人活字印刷的字模固定化、程式化。由此可知,从书法艺术这个角度分析,学书者应该追求古拙且具有艺术趣味的书法。刘熙载《艺概》中说:
        学书者始由不工求工,继由工求不工。不工者,工之极也!蹲印ど侥酒吩唬骸凹鹊窦茸,复归于朴!鄙品![1]
        由此可知,初学者学习晋楷、魏楷更能得古人遗韵,而学习唐楷很容易走向程式化。长此下去,将会束缚中小学生对追求书法艺术自然变化的意趣。这样显然违背了因材施教的传统教学策略?涤形凇豆阋罩鬯分兴担
        “吾闻人能书者,辄言写欧写颜,不则言某朝某碑,此言谬说!今天下人终身学书,而无所就者,此说悟之也。至于写欧则专写一本,欲以终身,此尤谬之谬,误天下学者在此也!盵2]
        由此可知,书法教师不要要求刚起步的学生只学颜柳欧赵,而是根据自己的兴趣选择适合的碑帖。事实证明,“兴趣是最好的老师”。然而,这种迂腐的教育模式依然存在,长此以往,后患无穷。
       。ǘ┢娴木殴袷降氖秸路J,导致中小学生章法的雷同化
        自近些年的中小学生书法比赛展览统计,约占百分之八十以上的作品为竖式章法模式,并用典型的九宫格式。九宫格式是因为唐楷注重法度严谨,强调结构而产生的。这种九宫格式的章法模式至少有两种弊端:其一,把一个字套在九宫格里,影响了中小学生灵性的挥发;其二,阻断了“行气线”,每个字都有其感觉上的重心点自上而下地连成虚线,这条现就是这一行字的“行气线”。事实证明,颜柳基本上是平均式的章法,即一行字的字距均等,给人以匀称安宁的感觉。而魏碑代表作《张猛龙碑》字里行间有紧有松,有疏有密,形成疏密相间、黑白对比的形式。这种形式犹如乐曲中长短不一的各组间的休止符,使行款节奏多变,富有韵律感。书法教师在教授学生书法时,不能只教学生写字,而忽视了章法美妙的组合。纵观书法史,凡是在书法上取得成就的书家,章法的构成也有他的独到之处。王献之在章法和气韵上均突破了其父王羲之的蕴籍之风,所谓“父得灵和,子得神俊!蓖躅煸谡路ㄉ舷裁,用笔一气直下,连绵不绝,为明代奏出了成功的尾声。由此可知,陈陈相因的九宫格式的教学模式束缚学生潜在的灵性的处理,必须更改之。
        由于课程设置、教材不统一以及师资力量不足等诸种因素,造成了中小学书法课大多有语文老师或美术老师兼任!吨榻肀ā匪担
        市教育局教育研究指导中心张老师介绍说,目前我市只有香山学校、香华实验学校、七中和杨匏安小学等几所学?枇耸榉ǹ,这些学校的书法老师多数是语文老师或美术老师兼任。[3]
        另据《南方都市报》报道:
        广东省于今年7月印发了《关于加强中小学书法教育的意见》,但受多种因素制约,东莞市各学校在开展书法教学时面对许多理由。东莞市教育局教研室有关负责人表示,目前东莞市教师的书法基本功普遍不够扎实,专职书法教师极少,学校书法教学场地不足,书法教学时间得不到保证,学生训练不足,而书法教材未到位也直接影响了书法教育的正?。东莞市教育局在书法教学研讨会指出,书法教材和师资理由都将得到根本解决,并能在下学期开始保证书法教育工作的顺利开展。[4]
        由是观之,广东中小学书法教育中书法教师队伍普遍水平有限,并且专业教师极少,书法课没有统一教材,社会上林林总总的书法培训机构也不正规,“培养获奖型选手”以及一些不科学的教学策略,都导致风气略显杂乱。总之,语文教师或美术教师以业余的身份教授书法课,自身就存在时间上的不足和业余化,长此以往,有兴趣学习书法的同学的灵性将被消灭在萌芽状态之中。
        广东书法教育近几年取得了可喜的成绩,然而伴随而来的高校、中小学只重技法的考试模式带来的隐患、教师在书法教学中存有误导倾向以及语文教师或美术教师业余教授学生书法带来的不良后果诸种不良因素长期下去,致使学生无法从始学书体和九宫格章法模式的困境中摆脱出来而面向艺术的升华。令人思考。笔者在剖析当代广州书法教育三大困境的目前状况的同时,指出教与学两方面的不足,并为广东书法教育的稳定发展提出三条改善的意见。祈请同道与教育专家批评指正。其一,根据上文提当代书法教育单一化倾向及策略由优秀论文网站http://www.abcanuncios.com提供,助您写好论文.出的培训、考试模式化,致使技法与当代人文精神要求严重脱节。书法教师应在注重技法的同时,还应重视理论研究。在民国以前文史哲不分家,我们现在做学术研究离不开文史哲。因此,书法教师在具备书法本体的理论知识以外,还应涉猎中外美术史、古代汉语、古文字学、美学、心理学、教育学等与 全文地址:http://www.abcanuncios.com/xxbzrlw/lw6581.html
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