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      关于关于超滤膜技术在环境工程水处理的应用网站位置: >> 工程论文 >> 制药工程论文 >> 浏览文章
      关于超滤膜技术在环境工程水处理的应用

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      超滤膜技术在环境工程水处理的应用摘要:在近50年的发展中,我国在水处理的领域取得了显著地成就。尤其是超滤膜技术在工业领域的广泛应用。总的来说,超滤膜是最早开发的高分子分离膜之一,是一种孔径规格一致,额定孔径范围为0.001-0.02微米的微孔过滤膜。然而,随着近年来我国经济的高速发展,超滤膜技术也得到了极大的发展,超滤膜的应用领域日益的扩大,特别是在城市建设环境工程的水处理领域上。鉴于此,作者结合自己多年的工作经验,在文中简要地对介绍了超滤膜技术,并结合其特点,重点讨论了超滤膜在我国城市建设环境工程水处理领域上的应用,以供各位读者参考。
        关键词:超滤膜技术;环境工程;水处理;应用
        前言:超滤膜是一种介于纳虑和微滤之间的分离、净化以及浓缩溶液的膜透过分离技术,实现溶液的浓缩、净化以及分离,具有良好的物化性能和分离性能,现目前被广泛运用于环保工程的水处理中。
        一、超滤膜技术概述
        超滤技术的作用是溶剂和部分分子量较低的溶质在溶液的压力作用下通过超滤膜的微孔到达超滤膜的另一侧,其他分子量较高的溶质则被保留下来,以便从溶液中分离。超滤膜发挥截留高分子溶质的主要是通过筛选作用来实现的,然而超滤膜表面的一些化学成分也能发挥截留高分子溶质的作用,如:超滤膜的静电作用。超滤膜通常具有分离性能和物化性能,超滤膜的分离性能主要包括切割分子量、截留率以及水通量,而其物化性能则是超滤膜的
        耐化学药品性能、机械强度、耐热温度范围以及适用PH值范围等。超滤膜技术是一种介于纳虑和微滤之间的分离、净化以及浓缩溶液的膜透过分离技术。超滤膜技术能够有效地截留溶液中的胶体物质和悬浮颗粒,且能够有效去除水中细菌、两虫、藻类以及水生生物,实现溶液的浓缩、净化以及分离。在环保工程的水处理方面,超滤膜有着低能耗、低压力操作、大通量以及高分离利率的优点,此外,超滤膜技术还能够对溶液中的可利用物质进行有效地回收,被广泛应用于现目前的环保工程水处理方面,如:净化饮用水、淡化海水以及回收食品工业污水等水处理方面。
        二、超滤膜技术特点
        相比于传统的水处理技术,超滤膜具有很好的物化性能和分离性能。超滤膜在物化性能方面,其化学性质相当稳定,具有较高的耐酸性能、耐碱性能和耐水解性能。超滤膜技术耐高温能力也相对较高,其最高使用环境温度能够达到140℃,并能够使用超高温的蒸汽和环氧乙烷进行消毒杀菌。超滤膜的PH使用范围也相对较广,能够在各种强碱或强酸溶液中使用。超滤膜也具有较高的分离性能,比传统的水处理策略的去杂质效率更高,能够彻底消除或有效减少化学药剂的使用量,从而有效避开二次污染。此外,超滤膜也具有非常高的过滤精度,能够将水中有害物质,如细菌、胶体以及悬浮物等有害物质有效过滤99.99%,且去可靠性能高,安装方便,运转简易,被广泛运用于现目前的环保工程的水处理中。
        三、超滤膜在环保工程水处理中的应用
        由于超滤膜技术具有良好的物化性能和分离性能,被广泛运用于现目前环保工程的水处理方面,具体应用在以下水处理方面:
        3.1净化饮用水
        随着工业废水和城市生活废水的不断排放,我国的水污染理由日益严重,人们越来越重视饮用水的水质,对饮用水的水质要求也越来越高,因此,饮用水的净化便成为了饮用水工程的重中之重。这就要求对饮用水中的细菌、悬浮物、真菌、微生物以及病毒进行处理和净化,以实现对其含量进行有效制约。超滤膜技术在去除饮用水中的病毒、悬浮物以及细菌方面发挥着重要作用。对比与其他传统的饮用水净化策略,超滤膜技术不仅能够有效去除水中微米级颗粒,还能有效去除传统水处理技术无法实现的纳米级颗粒,能够有效去除水中大量的细菌悬浮物等大量有害物质,提高水质量。
        3.2海水淡化
        海水在地球上含量较为丰富的水资源,随着淡水资源的不断紧缺,海水淡化便成为了有效解决淡水资源短缺的一个要途径。海水淡化技术经过几十年的发展,取得了一定的成就。现目前,电渗技术已经能够直接实现海水淡化,然而水的回收率却较低,能耗也非常大。运用反渗技术进行海水淡化是一项重大的技术突破和改革,不仅能耗和成本都相当低,其脱盐率也相当可观的。随着反渗技术的发展,膜技术在海水淡化方面也得到了一定发展,尤其是超滤膜技术。超滤膜由于其强大的物化性能和分离性能,应用于海水淡化中,能够有效制约反渗系统中入水水质,提高海水淡化水质。
        3.3回收食品工业污水
        在食品工业中,很多生产流程都会产生废水,这些废水中淀粉、酵母、脂肪、乳糖
        以及蛋白质等有机物含量相对较高,存在着巨大的回收利用价值。加上食品工业废水中含大量的COD、BOD,若不进行水处理直接排放到环境中,会造成很大的环境污染。运用超滤膜技术进行食品工业废水的回收,不仅能够实现对食品工业废水的有效处理,有效截留废水中的COD、BOD,降低环境污染,还能够对食品工业废水中的具有利用价值的成分进行回收利用,节约更多资源,能够有效实现环保与节能。
        3.4处理含油废水
        随着我国城市化进程的不断加快,含油废水的排放量不断增加,对城市水资源造成了严重的污染,因此,有必要对含油废水进行处理。含油废水中主要含油分散油、浮油和乳化油,对于分散油和浮油的处理相对容易,对乳化油的处理却相对较难。然而运用超滤膜技术处理含油废水时,能够有效地使水和分子量较低的溶质透过,有效截留含油废水中的乳化油、BOD以及COD,有效实现含油废水的处理,降低含油废水对城市水资源的污染。
        3.5处理电镀废水
        电镀工业中用水量相对较大,产生的废水也相对相对较多。由于电镀工业的特殊性,其废水中往往含有大量的较强毒性的六价铬、铜、镍、镉、锌等重金属离以及子化物,对人体、动物以及农作物都有着严重的危害,因此,应当对电镀废水进行有效处理。电镀废水中的离子很难被微生物吸收,可生化性较小。采用铁氧化法进行电镀废水处理时,处理后的出水污泥含量较多,色感较差;采用电解法进行电镀废水处理时,投资及耗电量都相当大,成本相对较高。然而,采用超滤膜和反渗膜连用技术进行电镀废水处理时,能够有效去除电镀废水中的87%的总有机碳、99.8%的镍、95%的硝酸盐 全文地址:http://www.abcanuncios.com/zygclw/lw50992.html
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